In the third phase of implementation of the Euro 6 legislation the manufacturers have to make a few changes to make their engines more environmentally friendly. On the other hand, the proximity of the target of 95 g/km of CO2 for the year 2021 obliged to reduce still further the consumption of fuel, especially in reality, because in the laboratory the manufacturers went way of achieving this. The alternative mobility wins every time more weight.
on the contrary, will be more difficult to circulate with cars with engines of petrol or diesel that do not comply with the regulations anti-pollution more recent. In the large cities, on days of high pollution, may have prohibited the circulation. In the historic quarters, we start to evict you. no longer will be green, but be practical.
The decade of 2020 will be the beginning of the end of the internal combustion engine and the final transition to cars powered by electricity, either plug-in hybrids with high-capacity batteries (with or without an auxiliary generator) or a hydrogen fuel cell. What can we expect in the medium term?
Engine 0.9 TwinAir of Fiat, the only two-cylinder engine in its category. Thrusters of this type may disappear to be complicated that meet Euro 6c
engines with displacements small will begin to disappear or to slightly increase its capacity. To reduce emissions of particulate matter (PM), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) it is necessary that the engines are less tight, less dependent on the turbo and generate exhaust temperatures low. In other words, it will go back 5-10 years.
testing equipment gas analysis (PEMS) have shown that the turbo engines small with direct injection, be it gasoline or diesel, have reached the limit of downsizing and on the road pollute more than expected. Therefore, it is necessary to go back a little back to reduce the actual emissions, because in the laboratory they were already very low and did not correspond with the conduction of the day-to-day.
The japanese had a reason, in this country the diesel is not reaching the 1% of sales of passenger cars. In Europe several countries have surpassed the 50 per cent, and in Spain we graze 70% of fee
Fewer diesel engines to choose
Every time it will be more difficult to standardise diesel engines that meet Euro 6c, so you will have to invest in solutions anti-pollution more costly and complex, given that in the real life emissions of NOx and PM are out of control. As the customers will not be willing to pay the necessary technology in some segments, manufacturers will no longer offer it in their ranges.
we have Already seen how in the segment, diesels have almost disappeared, are disappearing in the segment B, and to compact same is expected in the medium term. Will continue to be diesel engines in cars more expensive, segment D up, at least until the diesel is favored fiscally compared to gasoline. Right now the diesel engines cleaner manufactured by VAG, the more pollutants Fiat, Suzuki, Renault, Nissan and all models of brands that use their thrusters.
Volkswagen was one of the first manufacturers to announce that their petrol engines also have particulate filter (DPF or FAP)
The gasoline will filter particles
The gasoline direct injection (200 bar or more of pressure), combined with engines of high compression ratio or with a turbocharger has a negative effect very perverse: they pollute a lot more than the diesel particles, although in a different composition and size. As happened with the diesel, you will need to treat more thoroughly the exhaust of these engines to meet Euro 6c.
however, the filters particle, gas will not give as many problems as the diesel engines. Let us start from the basis that on a chemical level, are the particles very different, it is extremely difficult to see visible smoke in a gasoline modern. The implantation of these devices will reduce the contribution of cars to respiratory diseases and other measures that are reducing the quality of life in large urban areas.
The Renault ZOE is also offered with a battery of 41 kWh, which almost doubles the capacity it had when it was launched to the market. It has 400 km of autonomy approved
Electrical with more autonomy
The latest releases of the Nissan Leaf, Renault ZOE, BMW i3, Opel Ampera or Tesla Model S/X we show that manufacturers are increasing the autonomy and the capacities of the batteries in both these are coming down in price and improving in their charge density. Each time you can bring more capacity into the same space, simply by optimizing the design of the cells and the management of the load.
The Ampera-e and the Model S/X can exceed 400 kilometers of autonomy in terms of actual use, using air conditioning, and going from 90 km/h. The downside is that, inevitably, it will take more time to reload them, because the amp input are the same. Progressively the electric will be viable alternatives to travel, although it would help to have more electrolineras on the major routes. Even the vans and small trucks may be electric and remove smoke from the cities.
fuel cells do not work exclusively with pure hydrogen, they may use other fuels and to bring out of there the hydrogen
– Stack of hydrogen fuel is more affordable
today, the cars hydrogen fuel cell are very expensive, are made almost by hand and require components that are very expensive. 2015 has been the year 0 of the hydrogen, that is to say, when end customers have been able to buy property this technology. Until then you could try for free or by paying a monthly fee. The idea is that are becoming more popular.
In our country the almost absence of network of refuelling with the public determines very much the deployment of this technology, but Nissan showed us a prototype that there are alternatives to the use of hydrogen, as the use of ethanol in a fuel cell. To the middle of the next decade the prices will be more reasonable, there will be more ease to refuel, and the driver current and moliente will have one more shot. The Premium manufacturers are already working on models of this type, although initially it will not be very affordable.