The suspension of our cars (I): analysis and introduction

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One of the functions of the suspension is to absorb the irregularities of the terrain

suspension
tends to be valued as an element of comfort, but its function goes
far beyond, since it is responsible to ensure that the
tires of our car work in the best conditions
possible adhesion, to correct and mitigate potential
mass transfer when we accelerate, we slow down and turn, and by
of course to avoid the bounces and oscillations of the body by
that our car did not lose contact with “reality”.

we are Going to analyze the
basic components of the suspension and its function

The first element of
work in a suspension is the elastic element. The great
most manufacturers use the classic dock, but there is in the
market other alternatives, depending on the use of the vehicle
can be better and get a better behavior, for example
torsion bars or leaf springs, which still continue to be used in
some off-road vehicles or when you need strength to
load large weights.

Any of the
previous systems have the function of supporting the weight of the
car
in a flexible manner, taking care to maintain a distance
consistent with the soil. These elastic elements have to have
the ability to compress and exert a force opposite to the
compression is directly proportional to it. Materials
used are usually steel, and its effects are to be compressed as
cause of a pothole or a strong support on a curve, push the
body upward. Depending on the tare or hardness of the
spring, the force exerted upward will be higher or lower. The
force that are able to exert is measured in kilograms per
centimeter, for example, a spring whose tension is 100kg/cm us
it is indicating that for every 100 kilograms of weight you have to
to bear, to cede a centimeter of height.

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If the tension of the spring
is low, the suspension is very flexible, provides for us a
high capacity of absorption of irregularities. The suspensions with
low-tension spring are used to increase the comfort or
for vehicles that have to absorb large irregularities such as
the suvs. As a drawback we find the provocation
of oscillations in the body very broad. Even in situations
cargo may be dangerous by getting to do butt
tour.

The health of our suspension has a decisive influence on the behavior of our car, and therefore, in our security

At the other end of the spectrum
find springs with a higher tension. Do not absorb just
irregularities, are uncomfortable on bumpy parts, limit the
suspension travel in the vertical direction and produce effects
negative in a matter of rebounds that can lead to loss of
contact of the wheel with the ground.

The aim of the dock is
to achieve the best balance as possible between the two
previous situations.

shock Absorbers

As we have described
previously, the spring works under the principle of
action/reaction, as opposed to be compressed and recovering your
shape and original length once counterbalanced the energy caused
in your flexion. If we didn’t have any element that would
with this pendulum motion, the car varies in a constant manner
like a swing at every bump. Here he begins to work the
amortiguador.

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the function of The
shock absorber is none other than to reduce to the maximum the oscillations,
resisting both the movement of compression –avoiding
the rebound effect – as the extension –limiting the speed of
ascent of the pier-.

For a description
very basic of this element, the shock absorber works as a
syringe. One end formed by a hollow body with the form
cylinder is anchored to the body, while the other end
is anchored to the arms of the suspension and consists of a shank
with a piston which traverses the cylinder. A fluid oily fills the
cylinder and opposes the motion of the piston. Not to
to collapse, a series of holes allow the passage of oil through
of the piston, resulting in its tare more or less firm depending on the
size of these orifices and the density of the oil.

As is logical to the pier
and the cushioning must be in tune to be able to work the
perfection.

Stabilizer

When we get a good
balance in terms of comfort and behavior but we are looking for a
greater control of the inclinations, it resorts to the bar
anti-roll.
it Is a steel bar that is able to
squirm –torsionar-, is arranged in a U-shape and going anchored
at the ends of the same axle.

When we take a curve
and the spring is no longer able to control the tilt produced by
the centrifugal force and the outside wheel compresses, the movement
vertical that wheel up is transmitted to the inner wheel
the effect of the stabilizer, thus limiting the angle of
tilt.

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suspension Arms

To all the elements that
make up the different joints that allow movements
vertical of the wheel is referred to as suspension arms.
Its length, axis of articulation and the different anchors or
architecture will form a geometry that will give a certain
type of behavior to the vehicle.

The greater or lesser
effectiveness of the suspension as a whole is determined by the
correct operation of the components of all of it together.
Added to this are other factors of the car such as the total weight,
weight distribution and center of gravity etc

As the rest of the
elements that make up a car, the suspension is going to wear out and
deteriorating with the miles and time, making you lose
effectiveness. It is necessary to be attentive because it is an impairment that
occurs slowly and is difficult to detect. As a reference,
manufacturers of shock absorbers established that they lose to
50% of their effectiveness after 80,000 km Losing its effectiveness both in grip and in braking. We must never
neglecting the maintenance of our vehicles, it is a question
security.

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