The most common vehicles for road use internal combustion engines, mainly fed with gasoline or diesel fuel, both derived from the refining of oil. For that purpose there is a chemical reaction of combustion, which harnesses the heat energy of the fuel to produce useful motion. A portion of the fuel does not remain, and it pollutes.
combustion products can be classified in three groups:
- gases already present in the air common (safe): nitrogen (N2), and oxygen (O2)
- greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O)
- gaseous pollutants: oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO)…
the higher the chemical purity of the fuel, the lower the emission of pollutants. A chemical reaction of combustion perfect emits greenhouse gases, but not contaminants. The perfection depends on the quality of the fuel; although you can clean the exhaust process after the combustion, the efficiency is not the same.
The use of natural gas in the maritime transport will reduce much of the emissions linked to the transport, as in this prototype of Rolls-Royce
Let’s take the example of maritime transport. Basically the ships are fed bunker fuel, that is to say, what peorcito that there is in diesel fuel, that the big engines can digest and convert into movement. Pollute a lot, even though they are reasonable amounts per ton of cargo. The diesel fuel of higher quality is used in ground transportation, the worse it is used in boats.
In the case of automotive diesel, has reduced the amount of impurities that it has. Recall that the diesel fuel is distilled oil, and contains metal particles and other minerals that are not strictly hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are the fuel itself, that produces the energy. One of these components are non-combustible is the sulfur, which generates sulfur oxides and acid rain.
diesel “expensive” has a lower sulfur content
An alternative to the diesel is the biodiesel. It is a combination of vegetable oils with conventional diesel. As the oil has been generated with the growth of plants, which have absorbed CO2 in photosynthesis, is a diesel fuel with lower carbon content, net CO2 emissions are lower. The biodiesel pure can not use low-temperature form glycerin and that ruins the engines, for it is used mixed.
it Is possible to generate diesel synthetic-based energy, water and common air, without drilling wells, or contamination
gas current is much cleaner, which was sold in the 90’s, let us remember that one of its additives was tetraethyl lead, to better maintain the engines. With the electronic fuel injection and catalysts was required unleaded gasoline. Currently a fraction of the gasoline is of plant origin, that is to say, with bioethanol, not more than 7%. This is done to reduce carbon emissions and prevent the importation of so much foreign oil.
medium-term will be available on synthetic fuels, that can be generated from the common air, and a renewable energy source and abundant. We have seen what that meant to Audi about it, with its gasoline (e-diesel) and diesel (e-diesel), Ford doing the same with bioethanol. The goal is to produce fuel in a sustainable way, and renewable, although the volume of production may not be as colossal as that of the diesel fuel or conventional gasoline.
The synthetic fuel they produce very few pollutants
kill two birds with one stone, because not only reduce net CO2 emissions, also pollutes less in general. To be much more controlled by the chemical composition of the fuel, there is less discard in the exhaust pipe. Its production potential is infinite, never exhaust, only, there would be problems of availability. Other fuels that can be obtained from renewable way are biogas (methane) or methanol.
Plant for production of methanol, George Olah (Iceland)
Another of the advantages of synthetic fuels or vegetable is served by the existing engines, although they need some modifications in your injection system. Not only the calorific value of the fuel is not exactly the same (top and bottom), but that can cause damage to the ducts, the pump, filters, etc., In the long term we can feed the park of vehicles of conventional engines but not oil.
advances in the generation of ecological fuels on a large scale, and cost-effective way
Within a few years the hydrogen will be a leading player in the transport, as well as the pure electricity, but they lack solutions. One of them is the natural gas, is extremely abundant in the Earth, and its combustion produces very low emissions to be a hydrocarbon simple, methane (CH4). Some hydrocarbons can be used in fuel cells, as the prototype Nissan stack of ethanol (SOFC).
therefore, calm down, there will always be something to take your vehicle future classic, and you can move fuel more clean and inexhaustible. The only restriction will be the price. Increasingly experts believe that, leave the oil before the point of exhaustion (that is, the part is removable), not only for obvious reasons, but to reduce pollution and the emission of greenhouse gases. The more CO2 is loose, the greater the global warming.